—–. 1989. New Sentence structure and you can Semantics off Verb Morphology during the Modern Aramaic: An effective Jewish Dialect regarding Iraqi Kurdistan. Western China Collection, 69. The fresh Haven: Western Oriental Neighborhood.
Meehan, Charles, and Jacqueline Alon. 1979. The new Kid Whoever Tunic Stuck so you’re able to Him: An excellent Folktale on Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect away from Zakho (Iraqi Kurdistan). Israel Oriental Knowledge nine:174-203.
Sabar, Yona. 1976. Lel-Huza: Tale and you will Background within the a period away from Lamentations to your Ninth off Ab regarding the Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect off Zakho. JSS -62.
—–. 1988. The publication off Exodus from inside the Neo-Aramaic in the Dialect of the Jewish Community regarding Zakho [Hebrew]. Jerusalem: Magnes Press.
This type of six binyanim of Syriac was low in NENA so you’re able to two basic kinds, having a third closely allied into the second
Thomason, Sarah Grey, and you can Terrence Kaufman. 1988. Vocabulary Contact, Creolization, and you can Genetic Linguistics. Berkeley and La: Univ. out of Ca Press.
The first group descends from the new peal, the following group regarding the pael, while the third, whoever vocalism follows compared to the next, hails from the fresh afel
Some other grounds complicating the challenge is the differential affects of one’s various co-territorial dialects. This https://datingranking.net/cs/meet24-recenze/ new dialect variations contained in this Kurdish have become big, and the impact are going to be tracked a number of the adaptation certainly NENA dialects. Such as for instance, new Jewish Neo-Aramaic from Halabja, including the Kurdish of the area, will not identify something special and you can upcoming demanding, but where Kurdish maintains including a distinction, so do Neo-Aramaic. Inside the Azerbaijan, Turkish keeps exerted good effect on the fresh Jewish dialect (Garbell 1965b), and dialects of ordinary off Mosul reveal a powerful determine away from Arabic perhaps not seen somewhere else.
Tkhuma (Tx): The language away from descendants regarding emigrants from a single of your partial-separate ashirets regarding the southern part of Turkey, today citizen along the Khabur Valley in the Syria. Data is off Jacobi (1973) and you may my personal cards.
(5) Syriac had three first spoken stems, this new peal, the latest pael, plus the afel. These types of was indeed additional around three inactive stems, formed on the basic of these from the prefixation out of e[Theta]-: the newest elizabeth[Theta]pael, the latest age[Theta]paal, and ettafal. This situation can be acquired during NENA. In the most common NENA dialects, verbs have a tendency to stay-in new verb groups where they were found in before degrees of your words. That’s, the new descendant regarding an effective Syriac peal verb could be a good NENA Group We verb, and you will an effective Syriac pael verb might possibly be good NENA Classification II verb: such as for instance, Urmi ptaxa ‘open’ out-of prior to peal, and sadure ‘send’ regarding earlier pael. But not, in Jewish Azerbaijani, Halabja, and possibly Koy Sanjaq, the class membership might have been reorganized and that’s predictable for the base of your shape of the newest stem in place of the historical resource. Such, from inside the Azerbaijani the brand new C base comes with the function CaCoC- getting voice verbs, any its resource, and you may CCaC- for center-poor verbs: garosen ‘I have always been pulling’, but kwasan ‘I (f.) in the morning descending’ (Garbell 1965, 64).
(11) Another most significant invention from inside the NENA is the third person copula that have l: ile ‘he is’, ila ‘she is’. This type may obtain (Noldeke 1868, 203) out-of we[Theta] leh ‘he has’, but no copula adore it is based external NENA. The initial and 2nd person don’t have an enthusiastic l, except during the Jewish Azerbaijani, the spot where the l has been generalized from paradigm: Jilu iwIt ‘you (masc.) are’, Aradhin we:win ‘I (masc.) am’, Azerbai big’ (Garbell 1965, 64). ile is positioned while in the NENA but inside the Halabja, which includes -(y)e: yarxa rahamim-ye ‘it is the few days out-of mercy’. None Turoyo nor Mandaic features variations synchronous to ile: Turoyo harke-yo ‘he was here’, harke-zero ‘I am here’; Mandaic basim-ye ‘he is charming’, basim-na ‘I was charming’ (Macuch 1965, 443).
(19) The existing Aramaic term to have ‘son’, bra into the BT, might have been lengthened throughout NENA except Hertevin from the inclusion of the diminutive suffix -ona/-una: Azerbaijan Jewish brona (Garbell 1965, 297), Jilu bruna (Fox 1992, 51), Aradhin bru:na (Krotkoff 1982, 122), Tisqopa brona (Rubba, private telecommunications), Zakho brona (Meehan and you will Alon 1979, 177). Yet not, each other Turoyo and you can Mandaic has actually an epenthetic vowel, but no suffix: Turoyo ?abro (Jastrow 1985, 221), and Mandaic eber or ebra (Macuch 1965, 520).
b) Oftentimes, Hertevin aligns with Turoyo, resistant to the remainder of NENA. They lacks good CCaCa establish tense (6), has no sodir preterite (12), has no preposition ta (15), and you can spends ruh to make reflexive pronouns (14).
—–. 1965. The Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect out of Persian Azerbaijan: Linguistic Data and you can Folkloristic Texts. Janua Linguarum, show practica 3. The fresh new Hague: Mouton.